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Development and Psychometric Evaluation of Scales: A Survey of Published Articles


avatar Foroozan Atashzadeh-Shoorideh 1 , avatar Farideh Yaghmaei 2 , *

1 PhD in Nursing, Nursing Management Department, Nursing & Midwifery School, Shahid Beheshti University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran

2 Department of Nursing, Zanjan Branch, Islamic Azad University, Zanjan, Iran

How to Cite: Atashzadeh-Shoorideh F, Yaghmaei F. Development and Psychometric Evaluation of Scales: A Survey of Published Articles. J Med Edu. 2015;14(4):e105474.
doi: 10.22037/jme.v14i4.10397.


Journal of Medical Education: 14 (4); e105474
Published Online: January 02, 2016
Article Type: Research Article
Received: October 29, 2015
Accepted: November 21, 2015


Background and purpose: Using valid and reliable instruments is an important way for collecting data in qualitative researches. This paper is a report of a study conducted to examine the extent of psychometric properties of the scales in research papers published in Journal of Advanced Nursing.Methods: In this study, the Journal of Advanced Nursing was chosen for systematic review. All articles which were published during 2007-2009 in this journal were collected and articles related to instrument development were selected. Each article was completely reviewed to identify the methods of instrument validation and reliability.Results: From 980 articles published in Journal of Advanced Nursing during 2007-2009, 41 (4.18%) articles were about research methodology. In these, 12 articles (29.27%) were related to developing an instrument. In this study, review of 12 articles that published in Journal of Advanced Nursing, 2007-2009, showed that some of the articles did not measure psychometric properties properly, thus some of the developed scales need to measure other types of necessary validity. In addition, reliability testing needs to be performed on each instrument used in a study before other statistical analysis are performed. From 12 articles, all of the articles measured and reported Cronbach’s alpha, but four of them did not measure test-retest.Conclusions: Although researchers put a great emphasis on methodology and statistical analysis, they pay less attention to the psychometric properties of their new instruments. The authors of this article hope to draw the attention of researcher to the importance of measuring psychometric properties of new instruments.


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© 2015, Journal of Medical Education. This is an open-access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial 4.0 International License ( which permits copy and redistribute the material just in noncommercial usages, provided the original work is properly cited.