Last Update: 2023-04-13 12:31:31


  • The best way to prepare a table in a manuscript is using the Microsoft Word Table function. Tables will not be accepted as an image file.
  • Place each table in your manuscript Full-text file directly after the paragraph in which it is first cited. If a table presents results but is first mentioned in the Methods section, do not move the table. Instead, remove the in-text mention in the Methods, leave an explanation for the authors, and retain the table in the Results section.
  • Do not submit tables in a separate file(s). Only upload tables as separate files if they are intended to be an appendix.
  • Each table should have borders with normal style without any colored row or column.
  • The style of a table should be simple. Each cell must contain only one paragraph or one line.
  • Do not use the Space or Enter keys to align content across the table or to create a new line, indent, or justify the content.
  • For ease of reading and formatting reasons, large tables covering several pages should, if possible, be divided into 2 or more smaller tables.

Table Components

  • Values for sample sizes and percents should be presented in the same column as "No. (%)". 
  • The unit of measurement is usually presented in the column heading; however, if the unit differs for each row, the unit of measurement can be presented in the left-most column of the row. Units of measurement are separated from the column description or row heading with a comma.
  • Category headings must be in marked in bold (eg, race, age groups, and gender).

Table Footnotes

  • The footnotes should appear in alphabetical order from left to right, top to bottom within the table.
  • All footnote symbols within a table are superscripted letters (a-z). The use of *, **, *** footnotes to mark significance levels (eg, P < .05, P < 0.01, P < 0.001) is discouraged. Authors are asked to provide exact P values instead. While we prefer the exact P values, there are exceptions to this general rule:
    • In tables of systematic reviews, which tend to be busy and where the original P values can't be found in the original publications
    • When odds ratios instead of P values are presented
    • If for any reason authors are unable to provide the exact P values
  • Footnotes are placed in a list directly after the table. All footnotes presented in this list require a corresponding letter within the table.

How to draw a standard table:

  • A sample of the table:
Header 1Header 2Header 3Header 4
First Column 1Cell 1Cell 2Cell 3
First Column 2Cell 4Cell 5Cell 6
First Column 3Cell 7Cell 8Cell 9


  • The text direction of the table should be Left-to-Right as the whole manuscript (Red Arrow).
  • Align text should be on the left also (Green Arrow).

  • If you have already drawn your table, you should apply the above steps in addition to changing table properties, as shown in the figure below.