Frequency of Hepatopulmonary Syndrome (HPS) Among Patients With Liver Cirrhosis: A Letter to Editor


avatar Ali Mokhtarifar 1 , avatar Hamidreza Azimi 1 , avatar Abbas Esmaeelzadeh 1 , avatar Mahmood Ebrahimi 2 , avatar Seyed Ahmad Eghbali 1 , *

Department of Gastroenterology, Mashhad University of Medical Sciences, Mashhad, IR Iran
Department of Cardiology, Mashhad University of Medical Sciences, Mashhad, IR Iran

how to cite: Mokhtarifar A, Azimi H, Esmaeelzadeh A, Ebrahimi M, Eghbali S A. Frequency of Hepatopulmonary Syndrome (HPS) Among Patients With Liver Cirrhosis: A Letter to Editor. Hepat Mon. 2016;16(2):e35990. doi: 10.5812/hepatmon.35990.

Dear Editor,

Hepatopulmonary syndrome (HPS) is a complication of liver disease. It is most frequently related to portal hypertension (with or without cirrhosis), although chronic liver disease of almost any etiology could be related to HPS (1, 2). Moreover, some acute liver diseases are related to HPS, such as ischemic hepatitis (3). HPS can be diagnosed when the following disorders have been approved (1, 4, 5); liver disorder, impaired oxygenation, intrapulmonary vascular anomalies, referred to as intrapulmonary vascular dilatations (IPVDs) and lack of intrinsic cardiopulmonary problem. HPS patients finally develop dyspnea on exertion, at rest, or both, commonly after years of liver disease. Dyspnea may be accompanied by pulmonary findings that are more specific for HPS (1, 6) such as platypnea and orthodeoxia. The frequency of hepatopulmonary syndrome in patients with chronic liver disease is about 4 to 47% regarding the criteria of diagnosis and used methods (7-12). The current study evaluated the prevalence of this complication in patients with cirrhosis.

Thirty eight patients with cirrhosis were included in this study. Chest X-ray, air-contrast echocardiography, ABG in supine and standing positions, Tc99 MAA lung perfusion scan, PFT (pulmonary function test), serum bilirubin, PT and albumin were evaluated in patients. Hepatopulmonary syndrome was diagnosed in patients who had intrapulmonary vascular shunting and pulmonary gas exchange abnormalities.

Among 38 patients, 28 persons were male (%73.7) and 10 females (%26.3). The mean age was 46.2 ± 13.6 (ranged 18 - 64 years). The most common cause of cirrhosis was hepatitis B. Among 29 patients (%76.3), hepatitis B and among 3 patients (%7.6) hepatitis C was diagnosed. Six patients (%15.8) had cryptogenic cirrhosis. Eleven patients (%28.9) had significant hypoxemia (pa O2 < 70) and 24 patients (%71.1) had not hypoxemia.

Using echocardiography, 9 patients (23.7%) had pulmonary shunt. Also using radio isotope scan, 2 patients (%5.3) had pulmonary shunt. No patients with positive results in scan had contrast echocardiography. Therefore, pulmonary shunt frequency was %23.7.

Six patients (15.8%) had HPS. Three patients (9.9%) had pulmonary shunt without hypoxemia or elevated p(A-a)O2 that are introduced subclinical HPS or IPVDs.

Fourteen patients (%36.8) had child score A, 19 patients (%50) child score B and 5 (%13.2) child score C.

The findings of the present study showed the prevalence of HPS and intrapulmonary vascular dilatation syndrome in patients with cirrhosis. Air-contrast echocardiography was more effective in diagnosis of intrapulmonary vascular shunting compared to Tc99 MAA lung perfusion scan. No significant relation was found between sex, age, duration, severity, and primary reason of cirrhosis with hepatopulmonary syndrome, but intrapulmonary vascular shunting was more usual in women patients. Spider angioma, orthodeoxia, low serum albumin, and ascites were determined to be suitable clinical indicators for hepatopulmonary syndrome.


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