Hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection is a worldwide problem in health. The seroprevalence of HCV infection is estimated to be 3%. There is considerable geographic and temporal variation in the incidence and prevalence of HCV infection. The researchers conducted the literature search using the electronic database MEDLINE (1966 to January 2008), EMBASE (1980 to October 2007), OVID (1966 to October 2007) and Google (for local websites and medical journals). The following keywords were used: 'Hepatitis C', 'Epidemiology', 'Iran', and 'Pakistan'. HCV infection in Pakistan is more common than in Iran. The most common modes of transmission in Pakistan consist of: IVDs, unsafe injections, transfusion, tattooing and sharing by barbers and in Iran consists of: IVDs, getting wounded in war, extramarital sexual contact and tattooing. The hepatitis C infection is an emerging disease in both countries and requires more governmental support. This article reviews the literature available so far on the epidemiology and potential risks of transmission of HCV and makes recommendations for implementing strategies for the prevention of such transmission in our region.
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