Venous obstruction is relatively frequent following permanent pacemaker or implantable cardioverter-defibrillator (ICD) implantation. However, most of them are asymptomatic. Although the exact risk factor for this complication is not known, number of leads, heart failure and infection may prone the patient to this complication. The goal standard for detection of vein stenosis is venography; however, ultrasound sonography has an acceptable accuracy. Anticoagulant therapy may be considered for symptomatic patients. For device upgrading, non-functional leads removal, venoplasty and rarely surgical treatment may be indicated.
Upper Extremity Deep Vein
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© 2016, International Journal of Cardiovascular Practice. This open-access article is available under the Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial 4.0 (CC BY-NC 4.0) International License (https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0/), which allows for the copying and redistribution of the material only for noncommercial purposes, provided that the original work is properly cited.