Early Detection and Optimized Management of Thyroid Disease in Pregnancy


avatar Fereidoun Azizi ORCID 1 , *

Endocrine Research Center, Shahid Beheshti University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, IR Iran

how to cite: Azizi F. Early Detection and Optimized Management of Thyroid Disease in Pregnancy. Int J Endocrinol Metab. 2015;13(1):e25728. https://doi.org/10.5812/ijem.25728.


  • 1.

    Stagnaro-Green A, Abalovich M, Alexander E, Azizi F, Mestman J, Negro R, et al. Guidelines of the American Thyroid Association for the diagnosis and management of thyroid disease during pregnancy and postpartum. Thyroid. 2011;21(10):1081-125. [PubMed ID: 21787128]. https://doi.org/10.1089/thy.2011.0087.

  • 2.

    De Groot L, Abalovich M, Alexander EK, Amino N, Barbour L, Cobin RH, et al. Management of thyroid dysfunction during pregnancy and postpartum: an Endocrine Society clinical practice guideline. J Clin Endocrinol Metab. 2012;97(8):2543-65. [PubMed ID: 22869843]. https://doi.org/10.1210/jc.2011-2803.

  • 3.

    Donnay S, Arena J, Lucas A, Velasco I, Ares S, Working Group on Disorders Related to Iodine D, et al. Iodine supplementation during pregnancy and lactation. Position statement of the working group on disorders related to iodine deficiency and thyroid dysfunction of the Spanish Society of Endocrinology and Nutrition. Endocrinol Nutr. 2014;61(1):27-34. [PubMed ID: 24035326]. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.endonu.2013.05.004.

  • 4.

    Taylor PN, Okosieme OE, Murphy R, Hales C, Chiusano E, Maina A, et al. Maternal perchlorate levels in women with borderline thyroid function during pregnancy and the cognitive development of their offspring: data from the controlled antenatal thyroid study. J Clin Endocrinol Metab. 2014;99(11):4291-8. [PubMed ID: 25057878]. https://doi.org/10.1210/jc.2014-1901.

  • 5.

    Webster GM, Venners SA, Mattman A, Martin JW. Associations between perfluoroalkyl acids (PFASs) and maternal thyroid hormones in early pregnancy: a population-based cohort study. Environ Res. 2014;133:338-47. [PubMed ID: 25019470]. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.envres.2014.06.012.

  • 6.

    Amouzegar A, Ainy E, Khazan M, Mehran L, Hedayati M, Azizi F. Local versus international recommended TSH references in the assessment of thyroid function during pregnancy. Horm Metab Res. 2014;46(3):206-10. [PubMed ID: 24505029]. https://doi.org/10.1055/s-0033-1363277.

  • 7.

    Lazarus JH, Bestwick JP, Channon S, Paradice R, Maina A, Rees R, et al. Antenatal thyroid screening and childhood cognitive function. N Engl J Med. 2012;366(6):493-501. [PubMed ID: 22316443]. https://doi.org/10.1056/NEJMoa1106104.

  • 8.

    Behrooz HG, Tohidi M, Mehrabi Y, Behrooz EG, Tehranidoost M, Azizi F. Subclinical hypothyroidism in pregnancy: intellectual development of offspring. Thyroid. 2011;21(10):1143-7. [PubMed ID: 21943136]. https://doi.org/10.1089/thy.2011.0053.

  • 9.

    Negro R, Formoso G, Mangieri T, Pezzarossa A, Dazzi D, Hassan H. Levothyroxine treatment in euthyroid pregnant women with autoimmune thyroid disease: effects on obstetrical complications. J Clin Endocrinol Metab. 2006;91(7):2587-91. [PubMed ID: 16621910]. https://doi.org/10.1210/jc.2005-1603.

  • 10.

    Casey BM, Dashe JS, Wells CE, McIntire DD, Byrd W, Leveno KJ, et al. Subclinical hypothyroidism and pregnancy outcomes. Obstet Gynecol. 2005;105(2):239-45. [PubMed ID: 15684146]. https://doi.org/10.1097/01.AOG.0000152345.99421.22.

  • 11.

    Laurberg P, Andersen SL, Pedersen IB, Andersen S, Carle A. Screening for overt thyroid disease in early pregnancy may be preferable to searching for small aberrations in thyroid function tests. Clin Endocrinol (Oxf). 2013;79(3):297-304. [PubMed ID: 23627986]. https://doi.org/10.1111/cen.12232.

  • 12.

    Laurberg P, Nygaard B, Glinoer D, Grussendorf M, Orgiazzi J. Guidelines for TSH-receptor antibody measurements in pregnancy: results of an evidence-based symposium organized by the European Thyroid Association. Eur J Endocrinol. 1998;139(6):584-6. [PubMed ID: 9916861].