World-wide it is estimated that over 2.5 million peo-ple are blind due to diabetes mellitus. The exact pathogenesis of diabetic retinopathy is not fully un-derstood. Some factors may act simultaneously in the pathogenesis diabetic retinopathy. Although ma-jor advances in the clinical diagnosis and treatment of diabetic retinopathy and its associated complica-tions have been achieved over the past 5 decades, diabetic retinopathy remains the leading cause of new blindness among working-age coincides with peak fertility and childbearing years, individuals in developed countries. Understanding the risk factors that may lead to progression among diabetic women in pregnancy is of great important in the manage-ment of diabetic retinopathy. Patients who are in good glucose control at the start of pregnancy and who maintain tight control during pregnancy have little risk of progression of retinopathy. Slowing the progression of retinopathy and reducing visual loss in pregnancy seems to be by the use of laser photo-coagulation before pregnancy.
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