MRI is one of the most useful imaging tools for imaging of the urinary system. MR urography is an advanced imaging technique with the potential to noninvasively provide the most comprehensive and specific imaging test available for many urinary tract abnormalities without the use of ionizing radiation. At the same time, formidable limitations and challenges remain for MR urography, including its relative insensitivity for renal calculi, relatively long imaging times, sensitivity to motion, and lower spatial resolution compared with CT and radiography. Some of the potential clinical applications of MR urography include urolithiasis, urinary tract obstruction unrelated to urolithiasis, hematuria, congenital anomalies, and pre- and postoperative assessments. The most common MR urographic techniques used to display the urinary tract can be divided into two categories: (a) static-fluid MR urography (also known as static MR urography, T2-weighted MR urography, or MR hydrography), and (b) excretory MR urography (also known as T1-weighted MR urography)
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