Gender Differences in Coronary Artery Disease: Correlational Study on Dietary Pattern and Known Cardiovascular Risk Factors


avatar Mahdi Najafi 1 , * , avatar Mehrdad Sheikhvatan 1

Tehran Heart Center, Tehran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran

how to cite: Najafi M , Sheikhvatan M . Gender Differences in Coronary Artery Disease: Correlational Study on Dietary Pattern and Known Cardiovascular Risk Factors. Int Cardiovasc Res J. 2013;7(4):e12362. 


Background: The relationship between diet and cardiovascular risk factors in men and women with Coronary Artery Disease (CAD) has been the subject of recent studies. We studied a group of Iranian CAD patients to analyze any relationship between diet and CAD risk factors based on gender.
Methods: In this study, 461 consecutive patients were assessed before their planned isolated coronary artery bypass graft surgery. They were interviewed to obtain the quantity and components of nutrients and micronutrients based on a validated food frequency questionnaire. Diet scores were calculated in each dietary group and the total score was reported as the Mediterranean Diet Quality Index (Med-DQI). Physical activity was assessed using International Physical Activity Questionnaire (IPAQ). Functional class, EuroSCORE and the frequency of the known risk factors in the men and women were recorded as well.
Results: The women were more likely than the men to present with obesity, diabetes mellitus, hypercholesterolemia, and hypertension (all Ps < 0.001). Also, the women had higher functional class and mean of EuroSCORE (P < 0.001 and P = 0.03). Only six women (5.7%) reported to have regular physical activity. In addition, Women’s energy intake was more likely to be supplied through fat. Cereals, fruit, and vegetable consumption in both genders was within the safe recommended range, while olive and fish consumption was low in both sexes. MedDQI score was different between men and women with hypertension (P = 0.018) and obesity (P = 0.048).
Conclusions: Modifiable classical risk factors for CAD, except for smoking, were more prevalent in women and were associated with their diet. Therefore, women probably need to maintain low calorie intake while improving physical activity and dietary patterns to decrease the frequency and severity of modifiable cardiac risk factors.


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