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Stigma in People With Psychiatric Problems: A Grounded Theory Study


avatar Alireza Momeni 1 , avatar Soroor Parvizy 2 , *

1 Educational Treatment Psychotherapy Center of Razi, University of Welfare and Rehabilitation Sciences, Tehran, IR Iran

2 Nursing and Midwifery Faculty, Iran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, IR Iran

How to Cite: Momeni A, Parvizy S. Stigma in People With Psychiatric Problems: A Grounded Theory Study. Jundishapur J Chronic Dis Care.2(4):32253.


Jundishapur Journal of Chronic Disease Care: 2 (4); 32253
Published Online: November 15, 2013
Article Type: Research Article
Received: December 16, 2012
Accepted: March 15, 2013



People suffering from psychiatric illness experience stigma as an unpleasant social construct. Stigma has many damaging effects on the individuals, work, home-managing and social communications in these people. The main objective of this grounded theory study was to develop the perspectives of sufferers, their families, and healthcare team members about stigma in people with psychiatric problems.

Materials and Methods:

Data analysis in the grounded theory method was conducted. Sixteen participants were selected based on purposeful sampling and then subjected to semi-structured interviews until reaching data saturation.


Four categories emerged: stigma initiating factors, instigation of stigmatization (facilitators), mental challenges and emotional reactions of the individual when facing with stigma, avoidance strategy against stigmatization. Social identity was the fifth and the core category.


The stigma is a multifactor long-term psychiatric problem, as serious threat for social identity of the psychiatric problems individuals. Therefore, control of social identity is considered as a mental-social process in these people when dealing with the stigma.

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© 2013, Jundishapur Journal of Chronic Disease Care. This is an open-access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial 4.0 International License ( which permits copy and redistribute the material just in noncommercial usages, provided the original work is properly cited.