Background: Fluoride exists in various forms in nature and water resources. , The rising level of fluoride in water resources due to discharge of industrial effluents can cause toxicity in aquatic organisms. To prevent toxicity, it is necessary to determine maximum fluoride toxicity as well as effluent discharge limits. The aim of this study was to determine the maximum fluoride toxicity and the factors affecting fluoride toxicity to provide a model in order to determine the effluent discharge limits.
Methods: Daphnia magna bioassay in the absence of confounding factors was used to determine the maximum level of fluoride toxicity. Then, bioassay was repeated in the presence of the confounding factors (hardness, temperature and exposure time) to determine their effects.
Results: In the absence of intervening factors, fluoride LC50 levels determined after 24, 48 and 72 hours exposure were 4.9, 46.5 and 38.7 mg/l, respectively.. Also, the influence of confounding factors on LC50 values was reported significant by Minitab software.
Conclusion: Increasing the water hardness reduced fluoride toxicity, and increasing the water temperature and exposure time increased fluoride toxicity in aquatic environments. Therefore, while determining the wastewater discharge limit in terms of fluoride concentration, it is essential to take the effect of confounding factors on fluoride toxicity into account in order to prevent toxicity in the open water resources.
© 2014, Journal of Kermanshah University of Medical Sciences. This is an open-access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial 4.0 International License (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0/) which permits copy and redistribute the material just in noncommercial usages, provided the original work is properly cited.