Designing and Validating 10 Conceptual Scales to Prevent HIV among Adolescents


avatar M Ghaffari 1 , * , avatar Sh Niknami 1 , avatar A Kazemnejad 1 , avatar E Mirzae 1 , avatar F Ghofranipour 1


how to cite: Ghaffari M, Niknami S, Kazemnejad A, Mirzae E, Ghofranipour F. Designing and Validating 10 Conceptual Scales to Prevent HIV among Adolescents. J Kermanshah Univ Med Sci. 2007;11(1):e81863.


Introduction: Measuring tools in each study must be evaluated themselves. The goal of present study was designing, validating, and determining the reliability of some scales, which are used for measuring concepts of behavior change theory/models.
Materials & Methods: This study was a descriptive one in which, at first literature review and need assessment were done. Then designed tools were validated by face and content method. For reliability of scales 3 methods were done: 1) test-retest method for knowledge questionnaire, 2) internal consistency method for attitudinal scales, and 3) agreement method for checklists.
Results: Validity of tools was confirmed by 15 experts, and reliability coefficients (r, alpha, and kappa) for all scales of this study were high and acceptable.
Conclusion: In most studies, designing, validating and determining the reliability of data gathering tools are time consuming and costly and if there are valid and reliable tools in different topics, we could avoid repetitious works in researches.


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© 2007, Journal of Kermanshah University of Medical Sciences. This is an open-access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial 4.0 International License ( which permits copy and redistribute the material just in noncommercial usages, provided the original work is properly cited.