Examining Impulse-Variability Theory and the Speed-Accuracy Trade-Off in Children's Kicking Performance

authors:

avatar Sergio L. Molina ORCID 1 , * , avatar David F. Stodden ORCID 2

University of the Ozarks, Department of Education
University of South Carolina, Department of Physical Education

how to cite: Molina S L, Stodden D F. Examining Impulse-Variability Theory and the Speed-Accuracy Trade-Off in Children's Kicking Performance. J Motor Control Learn. 2023;5(3):e143462. 

Abstract

Background: The purpose of this study was to examine the applicability of impulse-variability theory and the speed-accuracy trade-off in children’s kicking performance. 
Methods: Forty-three children ages 9-11 were instructed to kick a ball at a target at 45%, 65%, 85%, and 100% of their maximum kicking speed. Results indicated a significant quadratic relationship in variable error across the target conditions (p=0.048), such that children demonstrated significantly lower variable error at 65% versus 100% max speed. Additionally, there was a significant inverse linear relationship was indicated for spatial error (p<.0001), with post-hoc analyses indicating that mean radial error at <59%, 60-69%, and 70-79% of maximum speed was higher than at >90% of maximum speed. 
Results: These data demonstrated that principles of impulse-variability theory (i.e., inverted-U function) and the speed-accuracy trade-off were not supported for the multi-joint ballistic skill of kicking in this sample of children. 
Conclusion: These results, along with other recent data, imply a need to reevaluate instructional emphases when promoting the learning of multi-joint ballistic skills such as kicking.

Fulltext

Full-text is available in PDF format.