Introduction:This study evaluates the coverage efficacy of the tetanus immunization programme in Jos University Teaching Hospital (JUTH), Nigeria and certain factors that affect the efficiency of maternofoetal transfer of tetanus toxoid (TT) IgG antibodies.
Materials and Methods:Sera from 43 mother-baby pairs selected randomly in JUTH were investigated for TT IgG antibodies using enzyme linked immune-sorbent assay (ELISA) technique. TT IgG antibodies were detected in 36 and 38 mothers and babies respectively.
Results:Thirty-six (83.7%) and 38 (88.4%) mothers and babies respectively were found to be seropositive (equivalent to or greater than 0.151IU/ml of TT IgG antibodies). Three (7.0%) seronegative mothers had seropositive babies. One (2.3%) seropositive mother had a seronegative baby. A highly significant correlation was observed between maternal and fetal TT IgG antibodies level (r=0.905). Twenty-one (58.3%) of the 36 seropositive mothers had concentrations lower than their respective babies. The ratio of the mean concentrations of the TT IgG antibodies of cord blood to maternal blood (C/M ratio) was less than one. Maternofoetal transfer of TT IgG antibodies was found to be unrelated to the babys gender, weight and the mode of delivery.
Conclusion:The study underscores the need to improve on the current immunization programme in JUTH and for further studies to understand how maternal characteristics affect the maternofoetal transfer of TT IgG antibodies in JUTH.
Full text is available in PDF