The Relationship Between Approach-Avoidance Behaviors and Hardiness


avatar Ahmad Ali-Poor 1 , avatar mahtab bazyari meimand 1 , *

Department of Psychology, Payam-e-Noor University of Tehran, Tehran, Iran

how to cite: Ali-Poor A, bazyari meimand M. The Relationship Between Approach-Avoidance Behaviors and Hardiness. Zahedan J Res Med Sci. 2012;14(10):e93195.


Background : Hardiness as a personality trait is an important factor in directing people to success. An explanation for this trait is the psychobiological explanation including the Gray’s theory of Brian/behavioral systems. This study has examined the relationship between the Brian/behavioral systems and hardiness in successful people.
Materials and Methods : In this study, 60 successful students (medical students in their final two years of medical school) and 60 ordinary subjects were studied using two personality questionnaires (Gary-Wilson and Hardiness Questionnaires) as well as Pearson’s correlation statistical technique, regression, and independent t-test.
Results : Data analysis showed that the activity level of behavioral activation system (p=0.002: active avoidance and p> 0.001: approach behavior) and hardiness (p>0.001) is significantly higher in successful people than ordinary subjects and that there is a significant relationship between hardiness and two components of behavioral activation system and one component of behavioral inhibition system (i.e. active avoidance) (p>0.01).
Conclusion : According to the findings, only two components of approach behavior and active avoidance can predict the variable hardiness. However, these two components are considered as only one of the predictors of success and there are undoubtedly many other factors involved in this regard. Overall, this study can lead to the identification of new factors involved in the success occurrence that consideration of them can help understanding the individual differences in order to perform effective psychological interventions to improve the level of effort and success in people.


The full text of this article is available on the PDF file.


  • 1.

    The References of this article are available on the PDF file.

© 2012, Zahedan Journal of Research in Medical Sciences. This is an open-access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial 4.0 International License ( which permits copy and redistribute the material just in noncommercial usages, provided the original work is properly cited.