Miswak/Derum Manipulation, a Common Habit in Baluchestan, Iran


avatar Masoomeh Shirzaiy 1 , * , avatar Zahra Sarani 2 , avatar Sudabeh Bagheri 3

Oral and Dental Disease Research Center, Dental School, Zahedan University of Medical Sciences, Zahedan, IR Iran
Medical Research Center , Zahedan University of Medical Sciences, Zahedan, IR Iran
Department of Oral Medicine, School of Dentistry, Zahedan University of Medical Sciences, Zahedan, IR Iran

how to cite: Shirzaiy M, Sarani Z, Bagheri S. Miswak/Derum Manipulation, a Common Habit in Baluchestan, Iran. Int J High Risk Behav Addict. 2016;5(2):e25948. https://doi.org/10.5812/ijhrba.25948.


  • 1.

    Almas K. The effect of Salvadora persica extract (miswak) and chlorhexidine gluconate on human dentin: a SEM study. J Contemp Dent Pract. 2002;3(3):27-35. [PubMed ID: 12239575].

  • 2.

    Sofrata AH, Claesson RL, Lingstrom PK, Gustafsson AK. Strong antibacterial effect of miswak against oral microorganisms associated with periodontitis and caries. J Periodontol. 2008;79(8):1474-9. [PubMed ID: 18672998]. https://doi.org/10.1902/jop.2008.070506.

  • 3.

    Al Sadhan RI, Almas K. Miswak (chewing stick): a cultural and scientific heritage. Saudi Dental J. 1999;11(2):80-7.

  • 4.

    Halawany HS. A review on miswak (Salvadora persica) and its effect on various aspects of oral health. Saudi Dent J. 2012;24(2):63-9. [PubMed ID: 23960531]. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.sdentj.2011.12.004.

  • 5.

    Darmani H, Nusayr T, Al-Hiyasat AS. Effects of extracts of miswak and derum on proliferation of Balb/C 3T3 fibroblasts and viability of cariogenic bacteria. Int J Dent Hyg. 2006;4(2):62-6. [PubMed ID: 16637906]. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1601-5037.2006.00149.x.

  • 6.

    Malik AS, Shaukat MS, Qureshi AA, Abdur R. Comparative effectiveness of chewing stick and toothbrush: a randomized clinical trial. N Am J Med Sci. 2014;6(7):333-7. [PubMed ID: 25077082]. https://doi.org/10.4103/1947-2714.136916.

  • 7.

    Martin S, Greenberg G, Lynch M. Textbook of Burket's Oral Medicine. 10th ed. BC Decker: Hamilton; 2008. 125 p.

  • 8.

    Almas K, Skaug N, Ahmad I. An in vitro antimicrobial comparison of miswak extract with commercially available non-alcohol mouthrinses. Int J Dent Hyg. 2005;3(1):18-24. [PubMed ID: 16451373]. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1601-5037.2004.00111.x.

  • 9.

    Al-Otaibi M, Al-Harthy M, Soder B, Gustafsson A, Angmar-Mansson B. Comparative effect of chewing sticks and toothbrushing on plaque removal and gingival health. Oral Health Prev Dent. 2003;1(4):301-7. [PubMed ID: 15643758].