academic journalism

Explaining the tribulations of life with implantable cardioverter-defibrillator: A qualitative study


avatar Mohammad Abbasi 1 , * , avatar Reza Negarandeh 2 , avatar Reza Mollazadeh 3

1 Department of Internal Surgical, School of Nursing and Midwifery, Qom University of Medical Sciences, Qom, Iran

2 . Nursing and Midwifery Care Research Center , Tehran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran

3 Cardiology Department, Imam Khomeini hospital, Tehran University of medical sciences, Iran

How to Cite: Abbasi M, Negarandeh R , Mollazadeh R . Explaining the tribulations of life with implantable cardioverter-defibrillator: A qualitative study. J Clin Res Paramed Sci. 2016;5(2):e81457.


Journal of Clinical Research in Paramedical Sciences: 5 (2); e81457
Published Online: June 10, 2016
Article Type: Research Article
Received: November 10, 2015
Accepted: April 19, 2016


Introduction: Although implantable cardioverter-defibrillator is the most effective way to control dysrhythmias and heart disorders, but patients experience tribulations with this device. The aim of this study was explaining the tribulations of life with implantable cardioverter-defibrillator. 
Methods: A qualitative approach of Interpretative phenomenology was performed for this study. The statistical population consisted of patients referred to the heart clinic of Imam Khomeini in Tehran. Purposive sampling was used to select the samples. The sample size was determined using the law of sampling adequacy. The data of 130 participants were collected through semi-structured interviews. For the interpretation of data the pattern of six basic steps (van Manen) was used along with data collection.
Results: Three themes emerged from the data interpretation. These themes including: physical tribulations (Restriction of movement, pain caused by the discharge of electric shock, the loss of self-control), psychological tribulations (living with fear, uncertainty about the future, faced with death during shock, waiting for the shock), and tribulations to the device (fear of system failure, system costs, limitations of the machine).
Conclusion: The results of this study showed that patients with implantable defibrillators experience physical and psychological tribulations. These experiences affect all aspects of their life. Therefore, appropriate planning for these patients performed to profit from treatment and counseling services.


The full text of this article is available on PDF.


  • 1.

    The References of this article is available on PDF.

© 2016, Journal of Clinical Research in Paramedical Sciences. This is an open-access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial 4.0 International License ( which permits copy and redistribute the material just in noncommercial usages, provided the original work is properly cited.




knowledge sourcing says:

Thank you for sharing such nice content. The demand for implantable defibrillators is expected to increase globally during the forecast period due to the rapid increase in the geriatric population and the rise in the incidence of sudden cardiac arrest. However, factors such as lack of awareness towards the advantage of using implantable defibrillators, high cost of implantable defibrillators, and unfavorable reimbursement policies are anticipated to hamper the market growth.