A Comparison of Adverse Reactions of the First Dose of Gam-COVID-vac (Sputnik V), Oxford/AstraZeneca COVID-19 Vaccine, Bharat Biotech (Covaxin), and (Sinopharm) BBIBP-CorV Vaccines

authors:

avatar HamidReza Samimagham 1 , avatar Mehdi Hassani Azad 2 , avatar Mohsen Arabi 3 , avatar Sobhan Montazer Ghaem 4 , avatar Kimiya Jafari 4 , avatar Dariush Hooshyar 4 , avatar Mitra Kazemi Jahromi 5 , *

Clinical Research Development Center, Shahid Mohammadi Hospital, Hormozgan University of Medical Sciences, Bandar Abbas, Iran
Infectious and Tropical Diseases Research Center, Hormozgan Health Institute, Hormozgan University of Medical Sciences, Bandar Abbas, Iran
Department of Family Medicine, Preventive Medicine and Public Health Research Center, Iran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran
Student Research Committee, Faculty of Medicie, Hormozgan University of Medical Sciences, Bandar Abbas, Iran
Endocrinology and Metablism Research Center, Hormozgan University of Medical Sciences, Bandar Abbas, Iran

how to cite: Samimagham H, Hassani Azad M, Arabi M, Montazer Ghaem S, Jafari K, et al. A Comparison of Adverse Reactions of the First Dose of Gam-COVID-vac (Sputnik V), Oxford/AstraZeneca COVID-19 Vaccine, Bharat Biotech (Covaxin), and (Sinopharm) BBIBP-CorV Vaccines. J Health Rep Technol. 2022;8(4):e122479. https://doi.org/10.5812/jhrt-122479.

Dear Editor,

COVID-19 is caused by the SARS-COV-2 virus. Causing acute respiratory syndrome, this virus has infected tens of millions of people and led to a pandemic. Following that, people were quarantined in their homes. Responses and reactions to COVID-19 appear to be widely different, ranging from asymptomatic or mild to severe conditions and death, among different people and regions (1). Numerous clinical trials worldwide have explored the efficacy of existing medicines against COVID-19, including various antiviral and immunomodulatory drugs (2). In its acute phases, when acute respiratory problems are present, N-Acetyl Cysteine and Famotidine are recommended for faster recovery of patients (3, 4). A wide variety of vaccines have been developed to fight the coronavirus. which include different platforms such as RNA, live-attenuated virus, protein subunit, and viral vector (5).

The present study evaluated and compared complications of COVID-19 vaccines and their severity among subjects taking the first dose of Sinopharm, Bharat, AstraZeneca, and Sputnik V vaccines.

This cross-sectional study was conducted in the Clinical Research Development Center of Shahid Mohammadi Hospital, in Bandar Abbas on April 2021, in Bandar Abbas, Iran, Iran with 270 people after injecting the first dose of Gam-COVID-vac, Oxford–AstraZeneca, and Bharat Biotech (Covaxin), and (Sinopharm) BBIBP-CorV. Since this study was done for the first groups of vaccinations, we used the census method for the study. An online questionnaire was designed to assess demographic information in addition to local and systemic complications of vaccination. Subjects were assessed in terms of local complications as well as systemic complications three days after vaccination.

This study was approved by the Research Ethics Committee of Hormozgan University of Medical Sciences. Among 270 vaccinated individuals, fever (62%), anorexia (34%), nausea and vomiting (29%), myalgia (68%), and weakness (82%) were the most prevalent complications in the AstraZeneca group. Furthermore, pain at the vaccination site was also most prevalent in the AstraZeneca group (49/58 (84%)).

Doroftei and Xia reported mild to moderate pain and fever at the injection site as the most common complications of the Sinopharm vaccine, which is consistent with our findings (6, 7). Zhu reported myalgia in 18%, fever in 16%, and nausea and vomiting in 6% of individuals receiving the Sinopharm vaccine. In this study, 20% of people experienced myalgia, 10% experienced fever, and 8% experienced nausea and vomiting after the first dose of the Sinopharm vaccine. In addition, Zhu et al. reported diarrhea in 8% of individuals, which was not reported in the present study (8) (Table 1).

Table 1. Comparison of Adverse Reactions of Sputnik V, Oxford–AstraZeneca, Bharat, and Sinopharm Vaccines a
Vaccine TypeP-Value
Sputnik VAstraZenecaBharatSinopharm
Weakness0.001
Asymptomatic63 (53)11 (9)9 (7)34 (29)
Mild26 (55)8 (17)3 (6)10 (21)
Moderate32 (56)19 (32)1 (3)5 (8)
Severe29 (59)20 (41)00
Total150581349
Headache0.031
Asymptomatic77 (53)19 (13)8 (5)39 (27)
Mild25 (55)11 (24)2 (4)7 (15)
Moderate26 (60)12 (26)3 (6)3 (6)
Severe22 (58)16 (42)00
Myalgia0.012
Asymptomatic56 (48)18 (14)9 (7)32 (31)
Mild21 (46)8 (17)3 (6)13 (22)
Moderate43 (69)16 (25)1 (1)2 (3)
Severe30 (62)16 (33)02 (5)
Bone pain0.021
Asymptomatic73 (48)23 (15)12 (7)44 (29)
Mild20 (55)13 (36)03 (8)
Moderate32 (72)9 (20)1 (2)2 (4)
Severe25 (65)13 (34)00
Nausea and vomiting0.01
Asymptomatic124 (57)41 (18)11 (5)45 (20)
Mild11 (42)10 (32)1 (3)4 (15)
Moderate8 (57)5 (35)1 (7)0
Severe7 (77)2 (33)00
Anorexia0.017
Asymptomatic111 (57)28 (14)12 (6)45 (23)
Mild19 (52)16 (43)02 (5)
Moderate14 (50)11 (39)1 (3)2 (8)
Severe6 (66)3 (34)00
Sneezing0.1
Asymptomatic139 (57)50 (20)13 (4)45 (19)
Mild10 (55)4 (22)04 (22)
Moderate0400
Severe1000
Cough0.001
Asymptomatic139 (56)47 (19)12 (4)47 (19)
Mild8 (47)7 (43)1 (5)1 (5)
Moderate3 (37)4 (50)01 (5)
Severe0000
Sore throat0.021
Asymptomatic124 (53)46 (20)12 (5)47 (20)
Mild12 (54)7 (32)1 (4)2 (9)
Moderate11 (78)3 (22)00
Severe3 (79)1 (25)00
Fever0.017
Asymptomatic89 (55)18 (9)11 (6)44 (27)
Mild36 (54)23 (34)2 (3)5 (7)
Moderate13 (50)13 (50)00
Severe12 (75)4 (25)00
Chills0.013
Asymptomatic92 (57)17 (10)10 (7)45 (26)
Mild16 (48)12 (35)2 (5)4 (12)
Moderate19 (59)12 (37)1 (2)0
Severe23 (57)17 (43)00
Urticaria0.032
Asymptomatic143 (55)56 (21)13 (5)48 (18)
Mild5 (84)001 (16)
Moderate1 (100)000
Severe1 (33)2 (67)00
Pain at injection site0.002
Asymptomatic43 (53)9 (12)5 (6)24 (29)
Mild47 (54)16 (18)5 (5)18 (20)
Moderate38 (57)18 (27)2 (3)8 (12)
Severe23 (60)14 (36)1 (4)0
Swelling0.021
Asymptomatic124 (53)48 (20)13 (5)45 (18)
Mild13 (56)6 (26)04 (18)
Moderate10 (90)1 (10)00
Severe3 (50)3 (50)00
Discoloration0.021
Asymptomatic135 (55)49 (20)13 (5)44 (19)
Mild14 (73)3 (15)02 (10)
Moderate1 (33)2 (67)00
Severe0000

In Doroftei’s study, 3% reported headache, 3% fatigue, 5% pain at injection site, 2% fever, and nausea and vomiting 2% in individuals receiving the first dose of Bharat vaccine while these figures were respectively 38%, 44%, 61%, 15%, and 15% in the present study. Given that Doroftei’s study population was 755 individuals, the difference in the prevalence of complications can be due to our small sample size (7).

Our study showed that among the under-examination vaccines, the most common local and general complications pertained to AstraZeneca, Sputnik V, Sinopharm, and Bharat vaccines, respectively among the first-dose vaccine recipients. Further studies and comparisons for different vaccines are recommended with larger sample sizes in different communities after receiving the full dose of vaccines.

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