Internal carotid artery arises from the common carotid artery and anatomically is divided into seven segments which are: C1 cervical, C2 petrous, C3 lacerum, C4 cavernous, C5 clinoid, C6 ophthalmic, and C7 communicating. In clinical practice both surgically and radiologically, knowing the precise anatomy of each segment has importance in avoiding surgical complications. Using radiological methods to study the detailed anatomy of the artery enables the surgeons to approach the lesions of the artery or the adjacent structures which involve the artery more precisely, and consequently, such approaches cause less side effects for the patients. As knowing the surgical and imaging anatomy of this important anatomical structure is very critical in surgical approaches specifically in the setting of skull base surgeries, in this study we reviewed the anatomy of this important structure in more details from both points of views of neurosurgery and neuroradiology and outlined some important anatomical and surgical hints. In clinical practice, knowing the precise anatomy of each segment of internal carotid artery has importance in avoiding surgical complications.
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